was not until 1880 that the Belgians could claim to have established an
indisputably original literature of their own. Before that time a few national
writers, like Henri Conscience, made a sporadic appearance, but either they
joined the ranks of French writers in Paris or they remained more or less
isolated phenomena in their own country.
between the earlier period and the foundation of Max Waller’s epoch-making
magazine, La Jeune Belgique, in 1880, stood Charles de Coster, whose Legend of
Tyl Ulenspiegel is now regarded as one of the chief sources of inspiration to
the generations that followed. But De Coster died before the opening of the
period that marks the birth of a genuine Belgian literature.
Belgium is rich in prose fiction. Though Maeterlinck spe-cialized in the drama
and the essay, and Verhaeren was essentially a poet, the most significant
products of the Belgians were their novels and stories. Lemonnier’s first
important novel appeared in 1881.
Demolder, Delattre, Virres, Eekhoud,
Rodenbach, and a score of others have all struck roots into the soil of their
native land; and nearly all of them have written short stories. As anyone may
see at a glance, the story as practised by the Belgians is quite as much a
painting as a narrative. The Maeterlinck, Lemonnier and Verhaeren stories in
the present collection are little more than paintings in the manner of the
earlier Flemish artists transferred to the medium of literature.
runs through modern Belgian literature a melancholy note that is attributable
doubtless to the tragic history of that small country, a mysterious and mystic
insistence upon the darker aspects of life; above all, a sense of the
picturesque decay of a nation once immensely prosperous and powerful.
are a few comic writers, chief among them Leopold Courouble, but these are
exceptional: it is in the peasant studies of Lemonnier and Eekhoud and
Demolder, and the mood pictures of Maeterlinck and Verhaeren and Rodenbach,
that the Belgians have found their most satisfactory medium, of expression.
Charles De Coster (1827-1879)
De Coster, “the father of Belgian literature,” was born at Munich in 1827. He
studied in Belgium, and at a comparatively early age entered a bank, where he
spent the greater part of his life. His writing was done sporadically. Apart
from Tyl Ulenspiegel, his most important work is the Flemish Legends.
was not until after his death that he was recognized as a master of prose
fiction. Tyl Ulenspiegel, the composition of which took the author some ten
years, is already regarded as one of the classics of Belgian literature.